“Plant cool-season grasses in September,” said Craig Roberts, University of Missouri Extension forage agronomist. “The earlier the better.”
Early planting lets seedlings put down roots to start growth before frost. New plantings must store energy for spring growth.
In northern Missouri, that means putting seed in the ground the first week of September. Ozark plantings can wait until mid-September. A late frost would help all.
Orchard grass and tall fescue are favored in Missouri. Other options are timothy, brome grass and perennial ryegrass. Fescue has staying power under Missouri grazing conditions.
Missouri isn’t easy on forages. Weather can be too cold, too hot and too dry. Throughout time, most grass needs reseeding, Roberts said. Fall seeding lets them get started for grazing next year. Then they must be used gently to start.
Missouri’s most used cool-season grass is K-31 tall fescue. Hardiness makes it popular. But K-31 brings many harmful side effects. Its hardiness comes from an endophyte fungus that protects the plant from pests — and grazing. That toxic fungus hurts livestock gains and reproduction.
“The absolute best cool-season grass is one of the novel-endophyte fescues,” Roberts said.
In new grasses, plant breeders have replaced toxic endophyte with nontoxic novel endophytes.
Novel-endophyte fescues are hardier than endophyte-free fescue. Livestock thrive on them. Novel fescues need more care because cattle graze them into the ground if unmanaged.
All pastures benefit from management-intensive grazing taught in Missouri grazing schools. Attending a grazing school allows farmers to gain cost-share dollars from local soil and water conservation districts. Information about grazing schools comes from local MU Extension centers or NRCS offices.
Grass seeding is best done with no-till drill. This takes careful control for shallow seeding.
“Plant no more than a quarter-inch deep,” Roberts said. “If planted too deep, seedlings may not emerge.”
A drill set incorrectly might not cut through thatch for seed to make good soil contact.
In a thinning pasture grown for many years, thatch might be a major concern. Some soil preparation might be needed. Concerns about drill-settings remain on prepared ground.
Roberts says to calibrate the drill for 15 pounds of live seed per acre.
After starting to drill, stop and check results before going too far. Dig up seed to check depth. Make corrections as needed.
“With shallow planting, some seed will be on top of the ground. That’s to be expected. Don’t wait until the whole field is planted to discover incorrect depth settings,” Roberts warned.
The Alliance for Grassland Renewal was formed in Missouri to promote novel-endophyte fescues. Now it holds pasture renovation schools across the Fescue Belt.
The group is made up of agronomists from universities, industry and government, as well as farmers. The website lists companies with approved seed varieties. For more information, go to grasslandrenewal.org.